Turkey's residential real estate market has attracted considerable attention from both local and foreign investors. Its competitiveness compared to other markets in the region such as Dubai (UAE), Bali (Indonesia) and Spain depends on a number of factors including economic performance, investment potential, current real estate prices and legal aspects. In this article, we will make a comparative analysis of residential real estate markets in Turkey and other countries in the region.

Real estate markets: returns and risks


After a difficult 2023, the real estate market in Turkey has started to recover, promising investors returns of up to 11% by the end of 2024. The leading cities for investment are Istanbul, Antalya and Bodrum, where rental demand is high, especially during the tourist season.

The main challenges remain economic and political instability, high inflation and interest rates, but working with trusted agencies and companies provides legal protection for investors.


The return on real estate investment in Spain depends on the region. In Madrid and Barcelona rental yields of about 3-5%, and in tourist areas such as Costa Brava and Costa del Sol, reaches 5-6% due to the high demand for short-term rentals.

A stable legal system reliably protects the rights of owners, including foreign investors, although the market is subject to global economic fluctuations.


Real estate investment in Bali attracts attention due to the high tourist flow and favorable conditions for foreign investors. Yields here range from 8% to 17% per annum, especially for investments in villas and resort properties.

The main risks include restrictions on land ownership for foreigners and dependence on tourism, but the market offers significant opportunities for real estate price growth.


The real estate market in Dubai remains stable, offering returns of between 5% and 8% per annum depending on property type and location. Investors benefit from the absence of personal income tax and stable rental demand.

Strict laws protect the rights of owners, and high transparency of transactions is ensured by electronic registration systems. Major risks include geopolitical factors, but high rental income and tax incentives continue to attract investors.

Economic performance

Economic stability and growth are key factors influencing the attractiveness of the real estate market.

Turkey: GDP per capita around $10,000 and economic growth of 2% to 6% in recent years. High inflation and unemployment around 12% may pose some challenges for investors.

Dubai (UAE): GDP per capita around 40,000 USD and stable economic growth of 3-4% per year. Low inflation and unemployment around 2% make this market extremely attractive.

Bali (Indonesia): GDP per capita of about 4,000 USD and economic growth of about 5% per year. Moderate inflation and unemployment around 5% create a relatively stable economic environment.

Spain: GDP per capita of about 30,000 USD and economic growth of 2-3% per year. Low inflation and unemployment around 14% (but declining) provide a stable investment environment.

Investment potential: foreign direct investment

Turkey attracts significant amounts of foreign direct investment (FDI), especially in the construction and tourism sectors. The country's developed infrastructure and strategic location make it attractive to investors. However, political instability and currency fluctuations pose certain risks.

Dubai is characterized by high levels of FDI, especially in real estate and trade. Tax incentives, a stable economy and an attractive business climate make it a highly attractive market. However, oil dependency and market saturation may pose some risks.

Bali is showing growing interest from foreign investors, especially in tourism and real estate. Low living costs and popularity among tourists make this market attractive. However, natural disasters and legal complexities could pose challenges.

Spain, while attracting significant FDI, especially in tourist regions and major cities, offers a stable legal system and a high standard of living. EU membership also adds to its attractiveness. However, economic dependence on tourism and demographic challenges may pose some risks.

Real estate prices: averages and growth rates

Dubai: The average price per square meter is around USD 3000-6000. Price growth is stable at around 5-7% per year.

Bali: The average price per square meter is about 2000-3000 USD, with a growth rate of about 8-12% per year.

Spain: The average price per square meter in major cities such as Madrid and Barcelona is about 3000-5000 USD. The growth rate of real estate prices is about 5-8% per year.

Citizenship, residence permit and visa programs

Turkey attracts investors with its citizenship and residence permit programs for investment. The right to obtain a residence permit is available to investors who buy real estate in Turkey worth $200,000 or more. Also, foreign investors can obtain citizenship by investing in real estate from $400,000. The benefits of Turkish citizenship include visa-free entry to more than 110 countries, free education and health care, and the possibility of dual citizenship.

In addition, there is a Turkish tech visa for foreign entrepreneurs wishing to develop startups in Turkey. This visa provides special benefits and simplified business conditions, encouraging innovation and capital inflow.

Dubai does not offer direct citizenship-by-investment programs, but there are opportunities to obtain long-term visas (up to 10 years) for investors who have invested significant sums in real estate. This allows investors to live and do business in a stable economic environment, but without the benefits of citizenship.

Bali also does not have citizenship-for-investment programs. However, investors can obtain long term visas based on large real estate or business investments. The process can be complex and require significant time and resources.

Spain offers a Golden Visa program that allows you to obtain a residency permit for real estate investments of 500,000 euros or more. This visa grants the right to live and work in Spain, as well as visa-free travel within the Schengen area. After a few years, investors can apply for permanent residency and citizenship.

Each of the countries reviewed offers unique opportunities for real estate investors, meeting different needs and goals. Turkey stands out among them due to its significant rate of appreciation, attractive property prices and citizenship-by-investment program, making it particularly attractive to international investors looking to improve their quality of life and grow their money.

Despite this, Dubai, Bali and Spain also offer their own unique advantages. Dubai offers stability and ease of purchasing real estate, Bali offers low living costs and attractive prices, and Spain offers stability and the opportunity to obtain a residence permit for investment.

Each country offers its own unique opportunities and returns for real estate investors, which allows you to choose the most suitable market depending on individual goals and preferences. When selecting a market for real estate investment, investors should first take a close look at their priorities and assess the long-term prospects for their investment.

Comparative analysis of the residential real estate market in Turkey and other countries in the region

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